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Botanism of orchids | Research - Discover transformations - great creations


The orchid is mainly an herb and is a perennial plant with green leaves all year round. They distinguish orchids from other family plants through growth habits and specific structure of the flower. They range from the leafless orchid (Dendrophylax), a plant with only roots, to the large, bamboo-like Arundina.

Practice

Many orchid species grow a number of practitioners (fake bulbs, water bags), although this is not always the case. Trees with rewarding practice have a way of growing according to the root, where each season a new practitioner will grow along a constantly growing rhizome. In this way, the orchid will develop a series of practitioners that turn them into a string. This chain of practitioners can be separated when two or more termites develop from the former practitioner in a year. This is how a bush forms over the years.


If you cut a practitioner in half, you will see a mass of fiber-filled food to help orchids survive the dry season.

It is difficult to compare practitioners with other herbal textures. A practitioner is not like a narcissus or an onion, which consists of a layer of fake leaves, one on top of the other. It also does not resemble a potato, which is rich in powder and tuberous texture. Perhaps the closest resemblance are the bull rhizomes of some of the members of the Iris family.

Inside, a practitioner contains fibers capable of holding lots of water, conserving energy and retaining moisture. In the wild, this ensures that orchids survive dry spells during the dry season. In a cultured environment, this dry season is winter, when orchids enter a semi-hibernation state and wait until spring to grow new. Practitioners are the longest living part of the orchid tree and will remain in a state of hibernation long after the leaves have fallen off. Practitioners without leaves are called black bulbs. In evergreen species, such as Cymbidium, a healthy plant consists of more leafy onions than leafless. With less leaf orchids, such as Lycaste, a cluster of leafless practitioners with only one leafy practitioner is common.


A yogi, like that of this Cymbidium, can grow on the ground or on a tree trunk like a symbiotic orchid.

Practitioners have evolved into a myriad of shapes and sizes, from long, thin, and shaped like a pencil to round and flattened bulbs. They can be no bigger than a pea, round and glossy looking very attractive when first formed, like the practitioners of the little Coelogyne and Bulbophyllum. On the contrary, they can be about the size of a tennis ball, as is the case with some species of the Cymbidium family. In the Cattleya family and related varieties, they are quite tall, like a baseball bat, growing from a small base while having one or two leaves growing on top.

The Dendrobium family of orchids has the longest yielding of cultivated orchids and those bags are so long that in some varieties they are called "sticks". In this species, they usually grow leaves along the length of the practitioner, like Dendrobium Pierardii. Many species of Dendrobium are leafless, they remain leafless and hibernate for most of the year. Probably the longest practitioners belong to the genus Grammatophyllum Speciosum. This giant orchid is called the cane trunk orchid, referring to the leafy stems that can be up to 5m long, dangling under their weight. Between those extremes are countless orchid species up to 1.2 m in height and many less than 30cm in size.

The light at the end of this hollow practitioner indicates that there is a gap at the base of the bulb. In the wild, this orchid species has many populations of ants to take refuge in the hollow yogi. The ants have comfortable shelters and the orchids are not infested by parasites. This leads to the question: "Who is the first, the hollow practitioner or the ants?".


Some orchid species, such as the Dendrobium orchid, have a very long yolk, unlike the other's. These long bodies, also known as "sticks", can be 1 - 2m in length.

The most strange practitioners are the hollow practitioners of the species Schomburgkia Tibicinis and Caularthon Bicornutum, two species of orchids with a gap at the bottom of the hollow practitioners. It is not understood why they evolved, because that is not a way of storing food when they are completely empty, in the wild, they are often the shelter of a ferocious ant, so they It can serve two purposes: to provide shelter for insects and, conversely, these insects will protect orchids against harmful parasites and pests.

Odontoglossum
This very well-grown Odontoglossum has a group of practitioners, supporting each other and a new shoot will create one more yogi. In this way, the orchid species will develop, growing more practitioners in each growing season.


When cutting the practitioner of a healthy orchid, it is found that it is completely hollow inside. This is a natural phenomenon for orchids.

Leaves

The leaves of grafted orchids often develop from practitioners. They can have one or more leaves. In the Cymbidium orchid family, a number of long, small leaves emerge from the root bark covering the onion and leave the orchid in a split way to avoid damage when the leaves fall. The Cattleya variety grows only one or two semi-rigid semi-rigid leaves from the tip of the practitioner. The leaves typically vary considerably in color, from light blue to dark gray. The leaves of several species of Paphiopedilum and Phalaenopsis have dark and light blue spots. Not all grafted orchids have a practice, such as the Paphiopedilum and the Phragmipedium, which have leafy fans that grow from a main submersible stem.

Single stem orchid has only one sinking stem from which a pair of leaves will grow perpendicular to it. The Vanda and Phalaenopsis species are the best examples of single-stem orchids in cultivation. While the Vanda can be quite tall and at certain stages of life it is necessary to trim its height, the Phalaenopsis orchid is a self-regulating species that never grows too high above the ground, for old leaves fall out at the same time as new ones grow.


This orchid plant Paphiopedilum has spots on the top of the leaves and dense purple spots on the underside of the leaves.

The leaves of the Vanda species and the single-stem orchids are usually semi-rigid and semi-soft, while the leaves of the Phalaenopsis species are broad and flat. In the wild, the Phalaenopsis orchid is not subjected to extreme heat or intense sunlight, and its broad foliage is intended to attract as much light as possible. In contrast, some varieties of Vanda orchids have round or tubular foliage to reduce their light-absorbing surface when they are subjected to a lot of sunlight. Leaves that only live for one or two growing seasons are usually broad, soft, and thin, such as those of the Lycaste species, while tough, tough leaves will last longer.

Should not mistake the long lines on orchid leaves Oncidium Incurvum Var. Variegatum is a virus. This is a natural phenomenon that can occur in many species of orchids. Whenever there is streaking on the leaves, it is essential to the health of the plant as it requires a lot of green or chlorophyll to nourish the orchid. If a leaf is completely white it will surely die.


Some orchids, such as this Trichotosia Ferox, have a fine brown fur-covered stem for which their purpose is not well understood. They are thought to be a protective layer for orchids in very cold areas.

Dendrobium Infundibulum
Dendrobium Infundibulum orchid branches, buds and buds are covered with thick black fur, forming a rough surface. As the new layer ages, the coat falls off.

Dendrobium senile
Dendrobium Senile orchids have white, fine-coated onion and leaves to protect the orchid plant in its natural growing environment.

Orchid leaves often contain chlorophyll to allow it to photosynthesize sunlight into energy. Some species of cymbidium survive for a long time with no leaves and only leaves during growth. Others, such as the Rhizanthella species, live underground without a single green part, which relies entirely on a symbiotic life with a microscopic fungus. They suck nutrients from that fungus. there are still single-stemmed orchids that do not have leaves, such as Chilochista, which only has a root system and the root system itself contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Some orchids have a thick coat on either side of the leaf. The purpose of this coat is still not fully understood, but they may be present to protect orchids against insects or to prevent water from depositing on the leaves, which are harmful during very cold nights. . Other single-stem species, including the Vanda species, have jagged leaf tips that are intended to help the orchid remove excess moisture from its roots.

Phaius Maculatus
Some orchids have a naturally variable foliage. Young leaves of this Phaius Maculatus orchid are very beautiful with light green color and yellow spots.

Roots

The roots of orchids are a unique phenomenon in the plant world. They are thick and mostly white, but they are quite similar to other plants. They consist of a small inner core and an absorbent outer layer of dead cells. Called velamen (silk sheath), this mantle draws water through their surface and grows behind the green tip of the roots. The tips of orchid roots are very susceptible to damage and break easily when they grow out of the pot. Most orchid roots are still in pots, but because they are used to living in the air, they often grow out of the pot and continue to grow, suspended in the air, or stick to whatever surface they come into contact with.

Encyclia mariae
The roots of a symbiotic orchid, such as the Enclyclia Radiata species, are a very important ingredient. They not only provide the orchid with nutrients, but also help it attach to the host plant.

The orchid roots are not a permanent structure and they are grown every year, protruding from the stump sometime after the growth period begins. As is the case with leaves falling from the tree after a year or a few years, the roots also die spontaneously to be replaced by other roots.

Stanhopea
Many symbiotic orchids have a short erect root system, such as the inlet rhizome of this Stanhopea. They grow like limestone columns with rather pointed tips. The purpose of these vertical roots may be to absorb moisture or capture the rotting leaves or debris of the forest to turn them into fertilizer at the base of the plant.

In single-stem orchids such as Vanda, roots appear along the submerged body and rarely have to crash to the ground. Many orchids can photosynthesize thanks to their roots, and under extreme conditions, there are still a few leafless symbiotic orchids that rely entirely on a thick root cluster to contain the necessary chlorophyll.

The roots of some orchids also look very attractive; In Phalaenopsis, they appear silvery-white when emerging from the pot.

A few orchids, such as Gongora and Ansellia, have short secondary roots
protruding from the main root in some way. They appear near the base of the tree and gradually become very stiff as thorns as they age. They turn into a solid and inaccessible barrier as a protective layer against insects who want to attack practitioners.

The roots are very important for orchids. If they die from over watering, they will not be replaced without a new growth period, meaning orchids must survive for months without a root system and be unable to absorb moisture. If this happens, the practitioner will curl and the leaves will soften until the new root system is able to restore the lost water reserve. In that case, frequent spraying will help the plant to reduce drainage.

Lan Ansellia Africana is a symbiotic orchid from Africa with a hard, aerial root system that grows in multiple directions. This does not mean that orchids do not need pots.

phalaenopsis
Here we see Phalaenopsis orchid roots growing in a transparent pot. This is to encourage the orchid plant to root in the pot, rather than the overhead roots, and will allow it to expose it to the soil (growing medium) and nutrients. It allows growers to observe the growth of orchids.

flower

While orchid stems are inherently diverse, their flowers are even more diverse in texture and color. Their flowers are plentiful and often beautiful to the point of contrasting much with the stem, which some consider unattractive. Many people were surprised at how ugly and tasteless stems get such beautiful flowers, even though for true orchid lovers, most orchids are beautiful. .

Paphiopedilum liemianum
The Eustacenum Paphiopedilum is a delicate, tall-stalked comedy orchid in which the lower lip has been transformed to turn into a pouch. Above this bag and on either side of the stamens are two anther.

Orchids structure

However, not all orchids are considered beautiful. While the vast majority of popular and popularly grown orchids are undeniably beautiful, there are many orchids whose flowers look very strange and even have a rather rugged shape. The most numerous orchid family is the Bulbophyllum family, but out of its thousands of species, very few are considered beautiful.

Zygopetalum maculatum
Carrying small petals on high stalks, Zygopetalum Intermedium orchids have a large, wide and prominent flower lip for insect pollination and from there it will be directed towards the pollen bud.

Orchids structure

While all orchids fit the same basic structure, this texture has been copied and modified thousands of times, each with the goal of adapting the orchid to its habitat. how to grow. A part of a flower is always over-transformed, with its petals or lips of the most striking color. All of those modifications are meant to attract pollinators, and to achieve that, some orchids have had rather irregular petal lengths.

Most orchids rely on insects for pollination, and their floral texture reflects that. Each flower has 6 main parts: 3 petals and 3 sepals, collectively called the petals. The outer three parts are the calyx, the inner three are the petals. The third petal is transformed into a lip wing, which is an ideal parking spot for insects to pollinate. The lips of the lips often cling lightly to the flowers so they can adjust the position of insects to pollinate, as well as ensure that only insects of the right size can enter the pollination.

Orchids structure

In many orchid species, the lip wing is often large, with a colorful color and a shape that is different from other parts of the flower. In the center of the lip are the grooves to guide the insect into the center of the flower. These grooves are usually bright yellow and are called nectar pathways. Above the lip is the flower pillar, a single, finger-like texture that houses the flower's reproductive organs. The pollen is located at the end of the flower pillar, often grouped into two, four or six blocks. These clumps contain pollen and, unlike other flowers, they are not pollen-like. They are located at the end of the flower pillar and are protected by an anther lid. The chalk is bright yellow and sticks to a wet disc with two thin threads. When an insect lands on a flower, the sticky pad attaches to its head or chest. The anther separates as the insect flies away from the flower to carry the pollen to another flower.

Underneath the flower pillar is a wet piece. This is where the pollen will gather. The pollen grains will extend the hoses down to the center of the flower pillar to reach the pistil just behind the flower, where they will meet thousands of unfertilized seeds. When the pollination is completed, the ovary will hatch into a large capsule containing up to a million small bright yellow seeds.

Phragmipedium Grande orchid has the largest flower in orchids. In this species, the drooping petals can be up to 45cm long, vertically and horizontally up to 1m. In contrast, there are small varieties of Stelis orchids whose cotton is only the size of a needle tip. In the middle of those two extremes are thousands of attractive flowers with a width of 2.5cm or more.

Stemming from passion, perseverance and hard work, after 23 years of research and research on orchid growing techniques, I have accumulated a lot of experience in propagating and cultivating forest orchids effectively.
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